The molecular nature of insulin resistance in human muscle is still incompletely defined. For almost thirty years we have been trying to understand the mechanisms that explain why muscle in patients who are obese or have type 2 diabetes only poorly uses fat for fuel. We termed this metabolic inflexibility. This causes fat to build up in muscle and other tissues, and causes the patient to respond poorly to insulin. We now think there are two proteins, called ANT1 and VWA8, that might be responsible for at least part of this.
People who are obese or who have type 2 diabetes are insulin resistant. Insulin resistance is when the body does not use insulin correctly, and more insulin is needed to keep blood sugar levels normal. In this study we are trying to better understand the causes of insulin resistance. People with insulin resistance have mitochondria that do not work well in muscle. Mitochondria are tiny parts of cells responsible for making energy, and we will be looking at these to see how they are involved in insulin resistance.
This study will allow the University of Arizona (UA) physicians and researchers the opportunity to examine people with or without eye disease, whether the diagnosis is known or not. In this study, no treatment will be offered. Participants undergo various tests and procedures to diagnose or evaluate their eye disease.
Are you interested in trying the Nexplanon contraceptive implant? You may qualify for a research study helping to understand how vaginal bleeding patterns change on the implant and how use of oral contraceptive pills plus the implant can make those bleeding changes more manageable.
No study has been performed to prospectively record the presenting complaints, signs, symptoms and comorbidities of children who raised the suspicion of pulmonary embolism (PE). Clinicians must extrapolate what is known about PE in adults to children. Perhaps as a result, the mortality rate of PE is the same in children as it is in adults. On the other hand, tens of thousands of low risk children and adolescents are unnecessarily exposed to increased lifetime cancer risk from ionizing radiation from CT scans done to search for PE they do not have.
The purpose of this research study is to determine how well individualized caffeine dosing recommendations work to recover performance during continuous extended sleep loss. Results from this study will be used to help develop technology that can be deployed in the field to prevent sleep loss related declines in performance in soldiers. Work has been done to develop models that predict behavior based on previous sleep patterns, but these models have not been tested against laboratory results. This study aims to test how well one specific version of this model works.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) remains an elusive, unsolved medical problem. Current mainstream approaches address the problem at the site of symptoms, but this approach only partially accounts for the causes and effects of CTS. Growing evidence suggests that CTS impacts not only the nervous system at the hand, but also impacts the brain.
Completion of the proposed studies will correlate the specific genes, proteins, nucleic acids or bacterial species with gastrointestinal, pancreato-biliary and hepatology disorders, including but not limited to cancer. A secondary point will be to determine whether specific biomarkers found in bodily fluids or tissue predict qualitative and quantitative changes in metabolic pathways.